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Good Management Practices

Successful treatment and control of PCVAD has primarily focused on assuring good production practices that minimize stress, eliminating coinfections or minimizing their effect and eliminating potential triggering factors that induce immune stimulation. The focus on control of PCV2-associated diseases remains on improving pig comfort and minimizing the effect of those coinfections or other circumstances that trigger PCV2 infection to progress to PCV2-associated disease.

Madec et al. (1999, 2000) proposed a 20-point plan to minimize the impact of PCVAD in severely affected farms.

 Farrowing Units

  1. Application of strict all-in and all-out production with thorough cleaning and disinfecting between batches.
  2. Dams should be washed and treated for parasites before farrowing.
  3. Cross-fostering should be limited.

Post-weaning Facilities 

  1. Post-weaning pens should be small and separated by solid partitions. 
  2. Pits should be emptied, cleaned and disinfected on a regular basis. 
  3. The stocking density should be lowered to 0.33 m2 per pig.
  4.  The feeder space should be increased to more than 7 cm per pig. 
  5. The air quality should be improved so that ammonia is less than 10 ppm, carbon dioxide is less than 0.1%, and the relative humidity is less than 85%.
  6. The temperature should be controlled.
  7. There shouldn’t be any mixing of batches

Grow/Finisher Facilities 

  1. Grow/finish pens should be small and separated by solid partitions. 
  2. The pits should be emptied, cleaned and disinfected on a regular basis and strict all-in, all-out rules should be applied. 
  3. There should be no mixing of pigs from the post-weaning pens.
  4. There should be no remixing between finishing pens.
  5. The stocking density should be lowered to more than 0.75 m2 per pig.
  6. The air quality and temperature should be improved.  

In Addition the Following should be considered

  1. The vaccination program should be appropriate.
  2. The air and animal flow within buildings should be carefully controlled.
  3. Strict hygiene should be applied (tail and teeth clipping, injections).
  4. Sick pigs should be removed as soon as possible to a hospital room or should be euthanized. 

It is recommended that at least 16 of the points should be adopted in order for the plan to be effective (Madec et al., 1999). Usage of disinfectants in buildings and transport vehicles that have been demonstrated to be efficacious against PCV2 (Royer et al., 2001) is also recommended.

Rose et al. (2003) reported on the risk factors for PCVAD in French farrow-to-finish herds and found that things such as PPV or PRRSV coinfection of finishers, large pen size versus small pen size for weaners, and increased levels of cross-fostering increased the risk for PCVAD; whereas long empty periods in the pig flow, regular treatment against external parasites, pen versus crated gestation, and internal versus external gilt replacement decreased the risk for PMWS. López-Soria et al. (2005) did an exploratory study on risk factors for PDVAD involving 62 Spanish farms and found that vaccination of gilts against PRRSV increased the odds of PMWS expression and vaccination of sows against atrophic rhinitis decreased odds of the disease.


López-Soria S, Segalés J, Rose N, Viňas MJ, Blanchard P, Madec F, Jestin A, Casal J, Domingo M: An exploratory study on risk factors for postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Spain. Prev Vet Med. 69:97-107, 2005

Madec F, Eveno E, Morvan P, Hamon L, Blanchard P, Cariolet R, Amenna N, Morvan H, Truong C, Mahé D, Albina E, Jesting A: Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs in France: clinical observations from follow-up studies on affected farms. Livestock Prod Sci. 63:223-233, 2000

Madec F, Eveno E, Morvan P, Hamon L, Morvan H, Albina E, Truong C, Hutet E, Cariolet R, Arnauld C, Jesting A: La maladie de l’amaigrissement du porcelet (MAP) en France 1 – Aspects descriptifs, impact en élevage. Journées Rech. Porcine en France. 31:347-354, 1999

Rose N, Larour G, Le Diguerher G, Eveno E, Jolly JP, Blanchard P, Oger A, Le Dimna M, Jestin A, Madec F: Risk factors for porcine post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in 149 French farrow-to-finish herds. Prev Vet Med. 61:209-225, 2003

Royer RL, Nawagigul P, Halbur PG, Paul PS: Susceptibility of porcine circovirus type 2 to commercial and laboratory disinfectants. J Swine Health Prod. 9:281-284, 2001


Control of Coinfections

PCV2 Vaccines



General Info






Molecular Organization


Host Range


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