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Immunosuppression

Krakowka et al. (2002) infected 12 gnotobiotic pigs with PCV2 at one day of age. In addition, 4 pigs received cyclosporine orally on a daily basis, and 4 pigs received corticosteroid (triamcinolone aceonide suspension) intramuscularly twice a week. The cyclosporine treatment but not the corticosteroid treatment resulted in increased PCV2 replication in tissues and promoted spread of PCV2 to hepatocytes. Inflammatory reactions typically of PMWS were absent although tissues contained high titer of virus (Krakowka et al. 2002). Kawashima et al. (2003) inoculated CDCD pigs intransally and intraperitoneally with PCV2 (n = 7) and treated 3 of 7 PCV2-infected pigs with dexamethasone at 8 days of age. The authors were able to produce granulomatous lyamphadentits in PCV2 and dexamethasone treated pigs but not in pigs infected with PCV2 alone suggesting that immunosuppression of the host has an effect on development of PMWS (Kawashima et al., 2003).

References:

Kawashima K, Tsunemitsu H, Horino R, Katsuda K, Onodera T, Shoji T, Kubo M, Haritani M, Murakami Y: Effects of dexamethasone on the pathogenesis of porcine circovirus type 2 infection in piglets. J Comp Pathol. 129:294-302, 2003

Krakowka S, Ellis JA, McNeilly F, Gilpin D, Meehan B, McCullough K, Allan G: Immunologic features of porcine circovirus type 2 infection. Viral Immunol. 15:567-582, 2002
 

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FACTORS OF PCVAD

Coinfections

Immunostimmulation

Immunosuppression

Age

Gender

Host Susceptibility

Antibody Levels

PCV2 Isolates