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Ruminants

Tischer et al. (1995) tested 90 bovine serum samples and found a weak reactivity to PCV1 antigen (35% reacted positive) as determined by IFA. Nayar et al. (1999) found PCV2-nucleic acids in cattle with respiratory disease and in aborted bovine fetuses. The authors investigated 100 cases of bovine respiratory disease and detected PCV2 nucleic acids in six of 100 lung tissue samples. In addition, PCV2-antigen was detected by IHC in one of these cases. The virus was tentatively named bovine circovirus (BCV) and it was found to be more than 99% homologous to PCV2 (Nayar et al. 1999). To our knowledge, no other reports have confirmed these findings to date.

In contrast, sera of 200 sheep, 350 cattle, and 150 goats were found to be negative for PCV1-specific antibodies as determined by an IFA (Allan et al. 1994). In addition, Allan et al. (2000e) tested 185 bovine serum samples from 40 herds from Northern Ireland, 120 bovine serum samples from France, and 120 sheep serum samples from 14 flocks in Northern Ireland by IFA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for PCV2-specific antibodies. All sera were found negative for antibodies to PCV2 (Allan et al., 2000g). Ellis et al. (2001) tested 100 serum samples from beef and dairy cattle with various clinical conditions collected from 42 Canadian farms and 100 colostrum samples collected randomly from dairy cows from 53 Canadian farms for PCV1 and PCV2 antibodies by ELISA and found no evidence of PCV2- or PCV1-specific antibodies. Rodríguez-Arrioja et al. (2003) tested tissues from 26 cattle, 24 sheep, and 8 goats for PCV2-nucleic acids by ISH and serum from 20 cattle and 20 goats for PCV2-antibodies by IPMA. In total, 58 samples were tested by ISH and 40 samples were tested by IPMA and all were found negative for PCV2-nucleic acids and PCV2-specific antibodies.

Six, one-day-old lambs free of PCV2-antibodies were inoculated oronasally with a PCV2 stock that had been previously shown to be pathogenic in the pig model (Allan et al., 2000e). Two lambs were necropsied at 13, 26, and 36 days post inoculation (DPI). There were no microscopic lesions observed in the animals, PCV2 antigen was not detected by IFA, and the lambs did not seroconvert to PCV2 (Allan et al., 2000e). Ellis et al. (2001) inoculated one 1-day-old calf and six 6-month-old beef calves with PCV2. The 1-day-old calf was necropsied at 14 DPI and no gross or microscopic lesions were detected and IHC for PCV2 was negative on all tissues examined. Blood was collected from the six beef calves and tested for PCV2-and PCV1-specific antibodies on the day of inoculation and again 6 weeks later. No antibodies to PCV2 or PCV1 were detected before inoculation or 6 weeks later (Ellis et al., 2001).

References:
Allan GM, McNeilly F, McNair I, Curran MD, Walker I, Ellis J, Konoby C, Kennedy S, Meehan B: Absence of evidence for porcine circovirus type 2 in cattle and humans, and lack of seroconversion or lesions in experimentally infected sheep. Arch Virol. 145:853-857, 2000e

Allan GM, Phenix KV, Todd D, McNulty MS: Some biological and physico-chemical properties of porcine circovirus. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 41:17-26, 1994

Ellis JA, Konoby C, West KH, Allan GM, Krakowka S, McNeilly F, Meehan B, Walker I: Lack of antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2 virus in beef and dairy cattle and horses in western Canada. Can Vet J. 42:461-464, 2001

Nayar GP, Hamel AL, Lin L, Sachvie C, Grudeski E, Spearman G: Evidence for circovirus in cattle with respiratory disease and from aborted bovine fetuses. Can Vet J. 40:277-278, 1999

Rodríguez-Arrioja GM, Segalés J, Domingo M, Plana-Duran J: Lack of PCV-2 infection in non-porcine species in Spain. Vet Rec. 153:371-37, 2003

Tischer I, Bode L, Apodaca J, Timm H, Peters D, Rasch R, Pociuli S, Gerike E:Presence of antibodies reacting with porcine circovirus in sera of humans, mice, and cattle. Arch Virol. 140:1427-1439, 1995 

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