PCV2 Associated Exudative Epidermitis
Wattrang et al. (2002) described an outbreak of exudative epidermitis in a Swedish SPF herd associated with PCV2. At the time of the outbreak, seroconversion to PCV2 was observed. Staphylococcus hyicus was isolated from skin swabs from affected pigs and PCV2 nucleic acids were demonstrated by PCR in lymphoid tissues from affected pigs (Wattrang et al., 2002). Harms et al. (2001) observed severe, diffuse exudative dermatitis in 42% (8 of 19 pigs) of CDCD pigs experimentally infected with PCV2 and the presence of Staphylococcus hyicus was confirmed by bacterial culture. The dermatitis lesions appeared at 3 to 7 DPI and progressed to a severe and diffuse form between 10 to 21 DPI. In addition, mild exudative dermatitis was observed in 6/18 PCV2 infected pigs and in 2/10 control pigs. Exudative dermatitis was not observed in PRRSV and PRRSV/PCV2 coinfected pigs (Harms et al., 2001). Kim and Chae (2004) investigated 142 tissues from pigs diagnosed with exudative epidermitis on the basis of bacterial isolation and microscopic lesions. The cases had been submitted between 1997 and 2002. Sections of skin and lymph node were tested by ISH for the presence of PPV and PCV2. PCV2 was found in 12 of 142 (8.5%) cases, PPV was found in 16 of 142 (11.3%) cases, and both, PCV2 and PPV were found in 60 of 142 (42.3%) cases. Distinct positive labeling was found throughout the inflammatory area in the dermoepidermal junction and superficial dermis. PCV2 and PPV DNA were detected occasionally in macrophages in lymphoid tissues. The authors concluded that PCV2 and PPV are highly prevalent in pigs with exudative epidermitis (Kim and Chae, 2004).
Harms PA, Sorden SD, Halbur PG, Bolin SR, Lager KM, Morozov I, Paul PS: Experimental reproduction of severe disease in CD/CD pigs concurrently infected with type 2 porcine circovirus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Vet Pathol. 38:528-539, 2001
Kim J, Chae C: Concurrent presence of porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus in retrospective cases of exudative epidermitis in pigs. Vet J. 167:104-106, 2004
Wattrang E, McNeilly F, Allan GM, Greko C, Fossum C, Wallgren P: Exudative epidermitis and porcine circovirus-2 infection in a Swedish SPF-herd. Vet Microbiol. 86:281-293, 2002