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Hepatitis

PCV2-induced hepatic necrosis in a pig experimentally infected with PCV2.

PCV2-antigen (brown staining) associated with hepatocellular necrosis in a pig experimentally-infected with PCV2.

PCV2 Associated Hepatitis

Hepatic lesions have been described as lymphohistiocytic inflammatory infiltration in portal zones, single cell necrosis of hepatocytes, swelling and vacuolation of hepatocyte cytoplasm and karyomegaly (Clark, 1997). PCV2 associated hepatitis has been reported in experimentally infected pigs coinfected with PCV2 and PPV (Allan et al., 1999a; Kennedy et al., 2000). Harms et al. (2001) observed severe necrotizing hepatitis lesions in CDCD pigs inoculated with PCV2 or concurrently inoculated with PCV2 and PRRSV, whereas hepatitis was not observed in pigs singularly infected with PRRSV. The authors concluded that hepatitis observed in field cases of atypical PRRSV likely results from concurrent PRRSV/PCV2 infection (Harms et al., 2001). Moderate-to-severe necrotizing and granulomatous hepatitis was observed in PCV2 and PCV2/PPV coinfected gnotobiotic piglets (Krakowka et al., 2000). Acute hepatitis with centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes was observed in a 24-day-old CD pig experimentally infected with a tissue homogenate from a pig with naturally-acquired PMWS (Hirai et al., 2003). Ladekjær-Mikkelsen (2002) observed moderate to severe hepatic atrophy associated with nonsuppurative cholangiohepatitis in experimentally-PCV2-infected pigs. In field cases, hepatic disease is a common clinical and pathological feature in pigs with PMWS and has been associated with concurrent PPV infection (Ellis et al., 2000a). Coinfection with Aujezsky’s disease virus and PCV2 has been reported in pigs with severe PMWS and hepatic lesions (Rodríguez-Arrioja et al., 1999).

References:

Allan GM, Kennedy S, McNeilly F, Foster JC, Ellis JA, Krakowka SJ, Meehan BM, Adair BM: Experimental reproduction of severe wasting disease by co-infection of pigs with porcine circovirus and porcine parvovirus. J Comp Path. 121:1-11, 1999

Clark EG: Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. In: Proc Am Assoc Swine Pract, Quebec, Canada. 28:499-501, 1997

Ellis JA, Bratanich A, Clark EG, Allan G, Meehan B, Haines DM, Harding J, West KH, Krakowka S, Konoby C, Hassard L, Martin K, McNeilly F: Coinfection by porcine circoviruses and porcine parvovirus in pigs with naturally acquired postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. J Vet Diagn Invest. 12:21-27, 2000a

Harms PA, Sorden SD, Halbur PG, Bolin SR, Lager KM, Morozov I, Paul PS: Experimental reproduction of severe disease in CD/CD pigs concurrently infected with type 2 porcine circovirus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Vet Pathol. 38:528-539, 2001

Hirai T, Nunoya T, Ihara T, Kusanagi K, Kato T, Shibuya K: Acute hepatitis in a piglet experimentally inoculated with tissue homogenates from pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. J Vet Med Sci. 65:1041-1045, 2003

Kennedy S, Moffett D, McNeilly F, Meehan B, Ellis J, Krakowka S, Allan GM: Reproduction of lesions of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by infection of conventional pigs with porcine circovirus type 2 alone or in combination with porcine parvovirus. J Comp Path. 122:9-24, 2000

Krakowka S, Ellis JA, Meehan B, Kennedy S, McNeilly F, Allan G: Viral wasting syndrome of swine: experimental reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in gnotobiotic swine by coinfection with porcine circovirus 2 and porcine parvovirus. Vet Pathol. 37:254-263, 2000

Ladekjær-Mikkelsen AS, Nielsen J, Stadejek T, Storgaard T, Krakowka S, Ellis J, McNeilly F, Allan G, Bøtner A: Reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in immunostimulated and non-immunostimulated 3-week-old piglets experimentally infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Vet Microbiol. 89:97-114, 2002

Rodríguez-Arrioja GM, Segalés J, Rosell C, Quintana J, Ayllón S, Camprodón A, Domingo M: Aujeszky’s disease virus infection concurrent with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs. Vet Rec. 144:152-153, 1999

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