James A. Roth

DVM, MS, PhD, Diplomate ACVM
Clarence Hartley Covault Distinguished Professor
Director, Center for Food Security and Public Health
Executive Director, Institute for International Cooperation in Animal Biologics
Presidential Chair in Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine
515-294-8459
2156 Vet Med
Education & Certifications  

Education:

Institution

 Degree

 Date

 Major

Iowa State University

D.V.M.

1975

Veterinary Medicine

Iowa State University

M.S.

1979

Veterinary Microbiology (Immunology)

Iowa State University

Ph.D.

1981

Veterinary Microbiology (Immunology)

 

Licensure:

Licensed to practice Veterinary Medicine in Iowa

 

Professional Experience:

1975-1977           Employed as a practicing veterinarian in a general veterinary practice in Belle Plaine, Iowa.

1977-1995           Adjunct Instructor, Instructor, Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, Professor, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

1987-2002           Professor-in-Charge, Ames Center for Animal Health (formerly the Center for Immunity Enhancement in Domestic Animals), Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

1990-1992           Professor and Interim Chairman, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, (aka Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Preventive Medicine), Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

1991-1994           Chairman, Biotechnology Research and Development Corporation, Animal Health Care Division, Scientific Advisory Board.

1993-2003           Board of Directors, Veterinary Resources, Inc., Ames, Iowa.  Veterinary Resources, Inc. is a private company that conducts contract research and testing.  It is an affiliate member of the Iowa State Innovation System at the ISU Research Park.

1995-Present       Clarence Hartley Covault Distinguished Professor, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

1995-Present      Executive Director, Institute for International Cooperation in Animal Biologics. An OIE Collaborating Center for Diagnosis of Animal Disease and Vaccine Evaluation in the Americas. The IICAB was jointly formed by Iowa State University, USDA/APHIS, and USDA/ARS.

2001-2004          Assistant Dean of International Programs and Public Policy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

2002-Present       Director, Center for Food Security and Public Health. Iowa State University

2006-Present       Adjunct Professor, Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

2008-Present        President, Transboundary Animal Biologics, Inc (TABI). A not-for-profit corporation with a mission to enhance the availability of veterinary biologics for transboundary diseases. 

 

Advisory Panels:

       Federal:

Interagency Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Counter Measures Working Group – Animal Pathogens Research and Development Subgroup (2003-2004)

White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Blue Ribbon Panel on the Threat of Biological Terrorism Directed Against Livestock (Dec 2003- March 2004), (Chair, Immunotherapeutics Working Group)

National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) (representing veterinary medicine) (2005-2014) (Level 2 Secret Security Clearance)

       Other:

Project ARGUS Senior Advisory Board, Georgetown University, Washington, DC. (2008-2010)

National Veterinary Stockpile Nipah Virus Countermeasures Workshop. Geelong, Victoria, Australia. March 17-19, 2009

National Academies of Science, National Research Council Committee on Evaluation of a Site Specific Risk Assessment for the Department of Homeland Security’s Planned National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas. 2010

National Academies of Science, National Research Council Committee on Evaluation of the Updated Site Specific Risk Assessment for the Department of Homeland Security’s Planned National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas. 2011-2012

National Academies of Science, National Research Council, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Advisory Council. 2011-2018

 

Invited Presentations, Washington DC:

“Review of Biosecurity Preparedness and Efforts to Address Agroterrorism”. Testimony before the US Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, Senate Russell Building, Washington, DC. July 20, 2005.

"Our vulnerability to animal diseases: Zoonotic diseases and their potential for infecting humans", AAVMC/National Coalition for Food and Agriculture Research Seminar, Longworth House Office Building, Washington, DC. July 16, 2007.

“Biodefense, Agriculture, and Food Security: Progress, Vulnerabilities and Needs”, AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy; Understanding President Bush’s FY2009 Budget Request for Biodefense: Round Table Discussion, Rayburn House Office Building, Washington, DC. June 11, 2008.

"Impact of an Outbreak of Food and Mouth Disease (FMD) in the United States and the Urgent Need for an Adequate Stockpile of FMD Vaccine". Testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives Agriculture Subcommittee on Livestock and Foreign Agriculture, Longworth House Office Building, Washington, DC. February 11, 2016.

"Vulnerability of U.S. Animal Agriculture and Food Production to Accidental or Intentional Disease Introduction". President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. National Academy of Sciences Building, Washington, DC. November 18, 2016.

 

48 Graduate degrees awarded (for which J. Roth served as major or co-major professor)

Teaching  

VMPM 380.Veterinary Immunology. Cr. 2. Structure and function of the immune system in animals. I give half the lectures.

Honors & Awards  

Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Microbiologists, 1982

Norden Distinguished Teacher Award, Iowa State University, 1983, 1993

Outstanding Young Alumnus, Iowa State University, 1985

Beecham Award for Research Excellence, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, 1986

Member: Phi Zeta, Gamma Sigma Delta, Phi Kappa Phi

Basic Science Teaching Award, Student Chapter American Veterinary Medical Association, Iowa State University, 1991, 1997, 2001

Faculty Citation, Iowa State University, 1993

Award for Mid-Career Achievement in Research, Iowa State University Foundation, 1994

Clarence Hartley Couvalt Distinguished Professor, Iowa State University, 1995

R&D 100 Award, SC-54 Vaccine, T. Kramer, M. Roof, and J. Roth, 1996

Distinguished Veterinary Immunologist Award, American Association of Veterinary Immunologists, 1997

John G. Salsbury Endowed Chair in Veterinary Medicine, 1998-2001

International Service Award, Iowa State University, 2000

AVMA 12th International Veterinary Congress Prize, 2001

Change Agent of the Year, Iowa State University Minority Student Association, 2004

AVMA Public Service Award, 2006

Distinguished Veterinary Microbiologist Award, American College of Veterinary Microbiologists, 2009

USDA APHIS Administrator’s Award for Life-Time Contributions in Animal Health, 2013

Exemplary Faculty Mentor, Iowa State University, 2014

Elected to membership, National Academy of Medicine, 2016

AAVMC Senator John Melcher, DVM Leadership in Public Policy Award, 2018

2018 Oscar W. Schalm Lecturer, UC Davis Alumni Reunion Weekend

Leadership/Committees/Council  

Immunobiology Interdepartmental Program Supervisory Committee (1984-1987) Chairman

Faculty Council (1981-1984) Executive Committee member

Biotechnology Council (1984-1987)

Provost Search Committee (1987)

Center for Advanced Agriculture (1987)

Molecular Biology Building Committee (1987-1989)

Animal Facilities Long-Range Planning Committee (1987) Chair

President's Task Force on Budget Priorities (1991)

Faculty Senate Committee on University Planning (1993-1997)

University Strategic Planning Committee (1994)

ISU Research Foundation, Board of Directors (1994-1998), Vice President (1995-1997)

University Strategic Planning Committee (1999)

Council on International Programs (2001)

Provosts Promotion and Tenure Committee (2001)

University Distinguished Professor Selection Committee (2000-2004) (2008-2011) Chair 2004

Executive VP and Provost Search Committee (2006)

Pandemic Influenza Planning Committee (2006-2009)

Presidential Initiative Subcommittee: Membership in the National Academies (2012-2015)

CVM Promotion and Tenure Committee (2012-2018) Chair

University Faculty Review Board (2013-2015)

 

Memberships  

American Veterinary Medical Association

American Society for Microbiology, Public and Scientific Affairs Board, Chair Agriculture and Food Committee (2015 to present)

American Association of Veterinary Immunologists (President, 1989)

American Association of Swine Veterinarians

American Association of Bovine Practitioners

Conference of Research Workers in Animal Disease

Iowa Veterinary Medical Association

Iowa Public Health Association

US Animal Health Association

American College of Veterinary Microbiologists, (Board of Governors, 1990-1993, 2001-2004; President, 2004-2008)

International Association for Biologicals (Veterinary Scientific Conference Committee, 2001-2018)

National Institute for Animal Agriculture

National Academy of Medicine

Selected Publications  

Full publication list on PubMedGoogle Scholar

Selected Recent Peer-Reviewed Print Publications (from a total of 181):

·       Levings, R.L., I.R. Stoll, J.V. Warg, P.A. Patterson, L.A. Hobbs, M.L. Kaeberle, J.A. Roth, 2014. Generation by self re-fusion of bovine3 x murine2 heterohybridomas secreting virus-neutralizing bovine monoclonal antibodies to bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins gB, gC, and gD. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 159:58-73

·       Kimura, K., J.P. Goff, P. Canning, C. Wang, J.A Roth. 2014.  Effect of PEG rbG-CSF injection on neutrophil number and function in periparturient dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 97:1-10.

·       Sandbulte, M.R., R. Platt, J. A. Roth, J.N. Henningson, K.A. Gibson, D.S. Rajao, C. L. Loving, A. Vincent. 2014. Divergent immune responses and disease outcomes in piglets immunized with inactivated and attenuated H3N2 swine influenza vaccines in the presence of maternally-derived antibodies. Virology 464-465:45-54.

·       Gauger, P.C., C.L. Loving, S. Kuhrana, A. Lorusso, D.R. Perez, M.E.  Kehrli, J.A. Roth, H. Golding, A.L. Vincent. 2014. Live Attenuated Influenza A Virus Vaccine Protects Against A(H1N1)pdm09 Heterologous Challenge Without Vaccine Associated Enhanced Respiratory Disease. Virology 471-473:93–104

·       Chattha, K.S., J.A. Roth, L.J. Saif. Strategies for design and application of enteric viral vaccines. Annu. Rev. Anim. Biosci. 2015. 3:6.1–6.21

·       Sandbulte, M.R., A Rovid-Spickler, P. Zaabel, J.A. Roth. 2015. Optimal Use of Vaccines for Control of Influenza A Virus in Swine. Vaccines, 3, 22-73; doi:10.3390/vaccines3010022.

·       Levings, R.L., J.K. Collins, P.A. Patterson, J.A. Roth. 2015. Virus, strain, and epitope specificities of neutralizing bovine monoclonal antibodies to bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins gB, gC, and gD, with sequence and molecular model analysis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 164:179-193.

·       Roth, J.A., C.K. Tuggle. 2015. Livestock Models in Translational Medicine. ILAR Journal 56:1-6.

·       Sandbulte, M., P. Gauger, P. Kitikoon, H. Chen, D. Perez, J. Roth, A. Vincent. 2016. Neuraminidase inhibiting antibody responses in pigs differ between influenza A virus N2 lineages and by vaccine type. Vaccine 34(33): 3773-3779.

·       Rajão, D.S., M.R. Sandbulte, P.C. Gauger, P. Kitikoon, R.Platt, J.A. Roth, D.R. Perez, C.L. Loving, A. Vincent. 2016. Heterologous challenge in the presence of maternally-derived antibodies results in vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease in weaned piglets. Virology. 491:79-88.

·       Van Engen, N.K., R. Platt, J.A. Roth, M.L. Stock, T. Engelken, RC Vann, L.W. Wulf, W.D. Busby, C. Wang, E.M. Kalkwarf, J.F. Coetzee. 2016.  Impact of oral meloxicam and long-distance transport on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in feedlot steers receiving modified live BVDV booster vaccination on arrival. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 175, 42-45.

·       Pickering, B.S., J.M. Hardham, G. Smith, E.T. Weingartl, P.J. Dominowski, D.L. Foss, D. Mwangi, C.C. Broder, J.A. Roth, H.M. Weingartl. 2016. Protection against henipaviruses in swine requires both, cell-mediated and humoral immune response. Vaccine 34(40): 4777-4786.

·       Platt, R., L. Kesl, C. Guidarini, C. Wang, J.A. Roth. 2017. Comparison of humoral and T-cellmediated immune responses to a single dose of Bovela® live double deleted BVDV vaccine or to a field BVDV strain. Vet Immunol  Immunopathol., 187:20-27.

·       Main, R.G.,  Zaabel, P.K., Leedom-Larson, K., Roth, J.A., Zimmerman, J.J. 2019. Case Study: Is it Time for an NPIP like Program for the US Pork Industry? doi: 10.31274/main.2019.001

·       Roth, J.A., Galyon, C.J. 2019. Emerging Diseases of Food Animals Threaten Global Food Security. International Affairs Forum: Food and Water Security. A publication of the Center for International Relations https://www.ia-forum.org  June 2019; pp. 13-20.

Selected Recent Contributions to Monographs (from a total of 40)

·      Roth, J.A., M.V. Lenardon, J. Galyon. 2015. How Web-Based Training Can Enhance Veterinary Education. Proceedings of the OIE Global Conference on Veterinary Education and the Role of the Veterinary Statutory Body. pp. 135-137.

·       Roth, J.A and M. R. Sandbulte. 2016. The Role of Veterinary Vaccines in Livestock Production, Animal Health and Public Health. In Veterinary Vaccines For Livestock, S. Metwally, A. ElIdrissi, and G. Viljoen (Eds), UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Accepted for Publication.

·       Roth, J.A. and J. Galyon. 2016. Vaccines as Tools Against Infectious Diseases in Veterinary Medicine. In Controversies in Vaccine Safety: A Critical Review. C.A. Shaw, C. Dwoskin, L. Lujan, and Tomljenovic. Elsevier. Accepted for Publication.

·      Roth, J.A., J. Galyon, and G.B. Brown. 2016. Causes and Consequences of Transboundary and Emerging Diseases of Animals: Role of the Veterinarian. In Transboundary and Emerging Diseases of Animals. A. Rovid Spickler, J.A. Roth, G. Brown, and J. Galyon, (eds.) Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 344 pages.

Selected Recent Monographs Edited (from a total of 16):

  1. Handbook for Zoonotic Diseases of Companion Animals. G. Dvorak, A. Rovid Spickler, and J.A. Roth, (eds) Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008. 359 pages. ISBN 0-9745525-6-9. Note: 5,000 copies were distributed to veterinary practices by Bayer Animal Health.
  2. Emerging and Exotic Diseases of Animals. 4th edition, A. Rovid Spickler, J.A. Roth, J. Galyon and J. Lofstedt, (eds.) Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2010, 383 pages. ISBN 0-978-0-9745525-8-3 Note: The USDA provides a copy of this book to every veterinary student in the U.S.  The Canadian Food Inspection Agency provides a copy of this book to every veterinary student in Canada.
  3. Enfermedades Emergentes y Exoticas de los AnimalesPrimera Edicion, A. Rovid Spickler, J.A. Roth, J. Galyon, J. Lofstedt, and M.V. Lenardon, (eds.) Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2010, 336 pages. ISBN 978-0-9846270-0-4  Note: This is a translation of the EEDA book above. The USDA purchased 2000 copies for distribution in Latin America.
  4. Vaccines and Diagnostics for Transboundary Animal Diseases. J. A. Roth, J. A. Richt, I. Morozov, (eds) Developments in Biologicals. 2013. Vol 135, 226 pages.
  5. Zoonoses: Protecting People and Their Pets. G. Dvorak, J.A. Roth, G. C. Gray, B. Kaplan, (eds) Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2013, 239 pages, ISBN: 978-0-9846270-3-5.
  6. Livestock Models in Translational Science. ILAR Journal. National Research Council of the National Academies. J.A. Roth and C. Tuggle (Eds) 56:1, 2015 146 pages.
  7. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases of Animals. A. Rovid Spickler, J.A. Roth, G. Brown, and J. Galyon, (eds.) Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2016, 344 pages. ISBN 0-978-0-9846270-5-9.

Education and Training Offered by CFSPH and IICAB

http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/education-and-training.php

The CFSPH website had 25 million hits in 2012, 60% from outside the U.S.

Emerging and Exotic Diseases of Animals for Veterinary Students

http://www.aavmc.org/Education/Emerging-and-Exotic-Diseases-of-Animals-a...

The Emerging and Exotic Diseases of Animals (EEDA) web-based is currently used at all United States veterinary schools. The course fulfills the Initial Accreditation Training requirement of the USDA National Veterinary Accreditation Program. The course has been used since 2002 at U.S. veterinary schools to raise awareness of foreign, emerging, and exotic animal diseases and to prepare veterinarians to recognize and appropriately respond to unusual animal diseases. Veterinary students access the course through a portal on the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges website www.aavmc.org. The CFSPH developed the course content with other academic institutions and manages the course. The USDA APHIS provides support for veterinary colleges to offer the course and distribute a companion textbook. The course is available for continuing education and has been translated into Spanish as well. Email eeda@iastate.edu for more information.

Emerging and Exotic Diseases of Animals for Continuing Education

http://www.EEDACourse.org

The EEDA web-based course, used at all U.S. veterinary colleges is also available for continuing education credit for graduate veterinarians (up to 18 RACE approved, non-interactive, continuing education hours).

Enfermedades Transfronterizas de los Animales

http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Educacion-Instruccion/enfermedades-transfro...

Spanish language version of the EEDA course above. Used by more than 2200 individuals in Central America in 2013.

National Veterinary Accreditation Program (NVAP)

http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/NVAP/

The CFSPH, working with USDA-APHIS has developed APHIS-approved supplemental training materials for the National Veterinary Accreditation Program (NVAP). Veterinarians seeking to renew their USDA accreditation can choose from three different supplemental training formats. There are approximately 60,000 accredited veterinarians in the U.S who are required to have APHIS-approved supplemental training.

Zoonoses: Protecting People and Their Pets

http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Zoonoses-Course/

Available for veterinary and human healthcare professionals and students to refresh and gain knowledge of key zoonotic diseases. The course includes lessons, case studies, a discussion board, and online resources to assist in conveying zoonotic disease prevention measures to clients.

National Animal Health Emergency Response Corps (NAHERC) Training

http://naherc.sws.iastate.edu

Free training available to anyone who is interested in animal emergency response.

IICAB Veterinary Biologics Training Program

http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/IICAB/meetings/may2014.php

The Veterinary Biologics Training Program has been offered every year since 1996. Almost 2100 individuals, including more than 600 attendees from 89 countries, have attended the program. The course gives participants an overview of the scientific principles of vaccines and vaccination and of the USDA regulatory process for assuring the purity, safety, potency and efficacy of veterinary biologics.

Veterinary Immunology & Principles of Vaccination

http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Immunology/full-course.php

This is a web based course presented by Dr. Jim Roth. This course (containing over 17 hours of lectures) is the same as that delivered at Block 1 of the IICAB Veterinary Biologics Training Program.

Introduction to Veterinary Immunology & Principles of Vaccination

http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Immunology/short-course.php

This web based course provides a high-level overview of the above-listed longer course. Dr. Jim Roth in 4.5 hours of lectures introduces how the immune system works, how vaccines prevent disease and why vaccines sometimes fail to protect from disease and occasionally cause adverse reactions.

Introduction to Animal Emergency Management

http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Education-Training/introduction-to-animal-e...

A 10 part course to provide USDA Animal Care employees with foundational information and skills to support USDA APHIS Animal Care's emergency planning and response roles.

Regulatory Compliance for Commercial Dog Breeders

http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Education-Training/regulatory-compliance-for-comme...

The CFSPH, in collaboration with USDA APHIS Animal Care has developed information about regulatory requirements for commercial dog breeders. The materials include information on the prelicensing process and requirements for maintaining a license under the Animal Welfare Act (AWA), and regulations and best practices in animal care and husbandry for commercial facilities. The information is presented in a series of PowerPoint presentations with speaker notes

 

Peer Reviewed Web Based Publications (Funded by USDA APHIS)

Foreign Animal Disease Preparedness & Response Plan (FAD PReP); National Animal Health

Emergency Management System (NAHEMS) Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases.2010. J. A. Roth, A. Stumbaugh, A. Rovid-Spickler, and D. Bickett-Weddle, 63 pages. https://fadprep.lmi.org/NAHEMS/NAHEMS%20-%202010%20and%20beyond/FAD-PReP...

Foreign Animal Disease Preparedness & Response Plan (FAD PReP); National Animal Health Emergency Management System (NAHEMS) Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases;Appendix A: Foot-And-Mouth Disease. 2011. A. Rovid Spickler and J.A. Roth, 93 pages. https://fadprep.lmi.org/NAHEMS/NAHEMS%20-%202010%20and%20beyond/FAD-PReP... or: http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/pdf/fad-prep-nahems-appendix-a-vaccination-...

Foreign Animal Disease Preparedness & Response Plan (FAD PReP); National Animal Health Emergency Management System (NAHEMS) Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases;Appendix B: Vaccination For Classical Swine Fever. 2012. P. K. Zaabel, A. Rovid Spickler and J.A. Roth, 68 pages. https://fadprep.lmi.org/NAHEMS/NAHEMS%20-%202010%20and%20beyond/FAD-PReP...

Foreign Animal Disease Preparedness & Response Plan (FAD PReP); National Animal Health Emergency Management System (NAHEMS) Guidelines: Vaccination for Contagious Diseases;Appendix C: Vaccination For High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza. 2011. A. Rovid Spickler and J.A. Roth, 140 pages. https://fadprep.lmi.org/NAHEMS/NAHEMS%20-%202010%20and%20beyond/FAD-PReP...

FAD PReP Strategy Document, Classification of Phases and Types of a Foot-And-Mouth Disease Outbreak and Response. 2012. J. A. Roth. 16 pages. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/pdf/phases-and-types-of-an-fmd-outbreak

Inactivation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Milk Products, 2012. A. Rovid Spickler and J.A. Roth, 94 pages. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/pdf/inactivation-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-...

 

Invited Presentations Since 2009 (International locations in bold)

2009 Invited Presentations

Fourth US  BVDV Symposium. “BVDV and vaccination of the young animal”. Phoenix, AZ, January 25-27, 2009

Iowa Veterinary Medical Association Annual Meeting. “Bovine neonatal immunology and vaccination of the young calf”. Ames, IA. February 11, 2009.

Mississippi Veterinary Medical Association Annual Meeting. “ Basic immunology and principles of vaccination” (3 hours); “Duration of immunity and frequency of vaccination for companion animals” (1 hour); and “Induction of T cell-mediated immunity to bovine respiratory disease viral pathogens” (1 hour). Starkville, MS. February 20-21, 2009.

Project ARGUS Senior Advisory Board Meeting, Georgetown University, Washington, DC. March 9, 2009.

American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges, International Committee Annual Meeting. “Enhancing the Performance of Veterinary Services in the Americas”. Washington, DC. March 14,  2009.

National Veterinary Stockpile Nipah Virus Countermeasures Workshop. “Nipah Virus Vaccinology:
Development of Vaccine for Henipaviruses in Domestic Animals” Geelong, Victoria, Australia.  March 17-19, 2009.

Calf Immunology Roundtable Discussion for Bovine Veterinarian. Santa Fe, NM. April 15, 2009.

National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, Bethesda, MD. April 29, 2009

OIE Veterinary Biologics Training Program, “Block 1: Immunology and Principles of Vaccination” (20 hours) Ames, IA, May 12-15, 2009.

Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Swine Academy, “Basic Immunology and Principles of Vaccination” (7 hours), Ames, IA, June 11, 2009.

American Veterinary Medical Association Annual meeting. “Role of native defense mechanisms in disease”; “Role of T cells in controlling infectious disease”; “Evaluation of cell-mediated immunity in cattle”; “Vaccine safety and efficacy”.  Seattle, WA. July 11, 2009.

International Veterinary Vaccines and Diagnostics Conference (5th). "Induction of T Cell-Mediated Immunity by Vaccines" Madison, WI. July 19-21, 2009.

International Aquatic Biosecurity Conference, Chair of Organizing Committee and Moderator of Conference Summary Session. Trondheim, Norway, August 16-18, 2009.

Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Swine Academy, “Basic Immunology and Principles of Vaccination” (7 hours), Ames, IA, August 18, 2009.

Project ARGUS Senior Advisory Board Meeting, Georgetown University, Washington, DC. October 2, 2009.

National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, Bethesda, MD. December 3, 2009.

Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases. Distinguished Veterinary Microbiologist Keynote Address. “Induction of T Cell-Mediated Immunity by Bovine Respiratory Viral Vaccines” Chicago, IL, December 7, 2009.

Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Porcus Pro Meeting.  “Principles of Immunology and Vaccinology” (3 hours). Majorca, Spain. December 10, 2009.

 

2010 Invited Presentations

Institute on US National Security Policymaking, “Bioterrorism, Agroterrorism and Securing Our Food Supply”. University of Delaware, Newark, DE. February 2, 2010.

Symposium on Practical Alternatives to Reduce Animal Testing in Quality Control of Veterinary Biologicals in the Americas, “Characterization of the Protective Immune Response to Develop Valid in Vitro Correlates of Protection”. Buenos Aires, Argentina. February 18, 2010.

2010 Biosecurity Conference. Panel Moderator: “Advancing Food and Agriculture Safety and Security". Chicago, IL. May 5, 2010.

OIE Veterinary Biologics Training Program, “Block 1: Immunology and Principles of Vaccination” (20 hours). Ames, IA. May 11-14, 2010

Hematech Science Advisory Board, “Vaccination to Stimulate Protective Immunity” Sioux Center, IA. June 3, 2010.

American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Annual Meeting, Equine Post-Graduate Session, “Advances in Understanding Native Defense Mechanisms”, “Advances in Understanding Cell Mediated Immunity”, “Principles of Vaccinology: The Utilization of the Immune System to Make a Vaccine Effective”, “Principles of Vaccinology: Adverse Reactions & Why They Sometimes Fail”, Anaheim, CA. June 10, 2010.

Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Animal Diseases, “Overview of Education and Outreach Overlay”, Manhattan, KS. June 29, 2010.

American Association of Swine Veterinarians Annual Meeting, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Symposium, “Principles of immunology and vaccination”. Vancouver, Canada. June 19, 2010.

DHS Science and Technology Chemical Biological Division Program Summit, “Procurement of Vaccines and Diagnostics for the National Veterinary Stockpile”. Washington, DC. August 18, 2010.

International Workshop on Alternative Methods to Reduce, Refine, and Replace the Use of Animals in Vaccine Potency and Safety Testing: State of the Science and Future Directions, “History and Overview of Veterinary Vaccines and their Importance to Animal Health and Public Health”. Bethesda, MD. September 14, 2010.

Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Swine Academy, “Basic Immunology and Principles of Vaccination” (7 hours). Ames, IA. September 17, 2010.

Tuskegee University College of Veterinary Medicine, “Induction of T cell-mediated immunity by bovine respiratory viral vaccines”. Tuskegee, AL. September 23, 2010.

Symposium on One Medicine, One Health, “Development of a Marker Vaccine and Companion Diagnostic Test for Nipah Virus”. Tuskegee, AL. September 23, 2010.

Science of Veterinary Medicine Research Day Symposium, Keynote Presentation, “Induction of T cell-mediated immunity by bovine respiratory viral vaccines”. Athens, GA. October 14, 2010.

Panelist, United Nations Day Celebration: Engaging Americans in the Millennium Development Goals. Ames, IA. October 24, 2010.

US Animal Health Association, Foreign and Emerging Diseases Committee, Co-presenter, “National Academies' Report on NBAF Site Specific Risk Assessment”. November 16, 2010.

 

2011 Invited Presentations

Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health Vista Cow/Calf & Stocker Veterinarian Welcome Back Event, “Advancing Information Regarding the Role of Cell-Mediated Immunity in Disease Protection”.  La Jolla, CA. January 24, 2011.

Institute on US National Security Policy, University of Delaware, “Bioterrorism, Agroterrorism and Securing Our Food Supply” February 4, 2011

2011 Annual Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Animal DiseasesAnnual Meeting, “Overview of Education and Outreach Overlay Projects”. Ponte Vedra, FL. February 23, 2011.

Testimony on the dangers of raw milk consumption to the Iowa Senate and General Assembly Committees on Agriculture, Subcommittee meeting regarding House File Bill 394 to allow raw milk sales in Iowa. Des Moines, IA. March 2, 2011

National Veterinary Services/Department of Homeland Security Meeting, “Transboundary Animal Biologics Inc.: Role and Coordination with the Department of Homeland Security and the National Veterinary Stockpile”. Washington D.C. March 8, 2011.

Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Swine Academy, “Principles of Immunology and Vaccination” (6 hours). Ames, IA. April 15, 2011

National Pork Board Food Animal Disease Economics Working Group, “OIE Regulations: the impact of policy decisions on disease status”. Des Moines, IA. April 21, 2011.

Hematech Animal Health Meeting, “Foreign Animal Diseases/Emerging Diseases”. Sioux Center, IA.  May 5, 2011.

IICAB Veterinary Biologics Training Program, “Block 1: Immunology and Principles of Vaccination” (20 hours) Ames, IA, May 10-13, 2011.

The Exchange, Iowa Public Radio interview: “Emerging Diseases of Humans and Animals”. May 18, 2011.

Boehringer-Ingelheim Vaccine Opinion Leader Summit, “Companion Animal Vaccines – Understanding the Issues Influencing Efficacy and Duration of Immunity”. Kansas City, MO. May 19, 2011.

Discontools Nipah Virus Infection Panel Expert Group. Brussels, Belgium. May 30-31, 2011.

4-State Dairy Nutrition and Management Conference, “Understanding Factors that Suppress Immune Function and Protective Immune Responses”. Dubuque, IA. June 8, 2011.

Regional Veterinary Medical Education Conference, “Preparing Students for Public Health and Emergency Preparedness”, Ames, IA. June 14, 2011

USDA Center for Veterinary Biologics inspection of Riemser vaccine production facility. Riems, Germany. June 26 – July 1, 2011

National Pork Board, Swine Health Committee Meeting, “Secure Pork Supply Update”. Ames, IA. July 28, 2011.

Pfizer Animal Health 2011 US Veterinary Operations Meeting, “Principles of Immunology and Vaccination” (4 hours). Boston, MA. August 9, 2011.

Federation of American Scientists, Interviewee for Case Studies in Agricultural Biosecurity: 1) Agroterrorism and Food Safety, 2) Agricultural Biotechnology: Safety, Security, and Ethical Dimensions
http://www.fas.org/biosecurity/education/dualuse-agriculture/index.html Washington D.C. August 12, 2011.

USDA Center for Epidemiology and Animal Health, Presentation on the Secure Milk Supply Project, Fort Collins, CO. August 18, 2011.

Food & Agriculture Protection Training Consortium-International Food Protection Institute Meeting. “ISU Role and the Importance of the Consortium Effort”. Battle Creek, MI. August 21-22, 2011.

USDA Food Safety Inspection Service, “Secure Egg Supply Plan”. Washington D.C. August 30, 2011.

National Academy of Sciences, Committee on the Evaluation of an Updated Site-Specific Risk Assessment for the National Bio- And Agro-Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas. “Briefing on the Previous Report: Shortcomings and issues identified by committee; Sponsor, congressional, and public response”. Washington, D.C. September 6-7, 2011.

National Academy of Sciences, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Council Meeting, “ILAR project for reducing, refining, and/or replacing the use of animals in human and veterinary vaccine safety and potency testing”. Washington D.C. September 15-16, 2011.

Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Swine Academy, “Principles of Immunology and Vaccination” (6 hours). Ames, IA. September 13, 2011

US OIE Collaborating Centers Meeting, “Report on IICAB Activities”.  Buffalo, NY. October 1, 2011

Secure Pork Supply Advisory Committee Meeting, “Lessons learned from other secure food supply plans: Secure Egg Supply, Secure Milk Supply, Secure Turkey Supply” “Discussion of Draft Secure Pork Supply Plan, and the Way Forward”, Des Moines, IA October, 11-12, 2011

Department of Homeland Security, Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Diseases University Center of Excellence, Meeting, “Overview of Business Continuity Plans for the Poultry, Pork and Dairy Industries”. Des Moines, IA. October 25-26, 2011.

USDA Foot and Mouth Disease Stakeholder Meeting. “Secure Milk Supply and

Secure Pork Supply Business Continuity Plans”, Riverdale, MD. November 2-5, 2011.

Kirkwood Community College, Veterinary Technology Program. “Basic Immunology and Principles of Vaccination” (4 hours) Cedar Rapids, IA, November 8, 2011.

Pfizer Animal Health PETS Webconference “Companion Animal Vaccines - Understanding the Issues Influencing Duration of Immunity” Webinar delivered from Ames, IA. November 11, 2011

 

2012 Invited Presentations

California Dairy Vitality Forum; Business Continuity: How Can We Survive a Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak? “Technical Background and Vaccination Considerations” Modesto, CA, January 26, 2012

FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine, “Immunology Round Table for participants in Basic Veterinary Immunology web based course”. Rockville, MD, February 6, 2012

Iowa House of Representatives Judiciary Subcommittee hearing on raw milk sales. Des Moines, IA, February 13, 2012

Pfizer Animal Health, “Companion Animal Vaccines - Understanding the Issues Influencing Duration of Immunity” (webinar) February 17, 2012

Kasetsart University, “Graduate Program at Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine (VMPM),

College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University”, and “Institute for International Cooperation in Animal Biologics and Center for Food Security and Public Health activities” Bangkok, Thailand, February 28, 2012.

37th International Conference on Veterinary Science, “Advances in immunology and vaccinology for livestock diseases: Native defense mechanisms and Cell-Mediated Immunity” (3 hours). Bangkok, Thailand. February, 29, 2012.

Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Swine Academy. “Basic Principles of Immunology and Vaccinology” (6 hours). Ames, IA, April 20, 2012

DHS Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases of Animals (CEEZAD), Education and Outreach Overlay Presentations: “Web-based Continuing Education Courses for Veterinarians, Graduate Students, Medical and Public Health Professionals”, and “Vaccine and Diagnostics Transboundary Animal Diseases Workshop”.  Nebraska City, NE, May 1-2, 2012.

IICAB Veterinary Biologics Training Program, “Block 1: Immunology and Principles of Vaccination” (20 hours) Ames, IA, May 8-11, 2012.

Nutrition and Wellness Research Center (NWRC) symposium Sustaining One Health in a Changing Environment: Creating a Resilient Future, “Environmental Change and Emerging Animal Diseases: A One Health Perspective” Ames, IA. May 16, 2012.

World Pork Expo, “The Threat of Foot & Mouth Disease to the Swine Industry”. Des Moines, IA, June 7, 2012.

NIAID Emerging Infectious Diseases at the Human/Animal Interface, Identifying Common Ground Among Federal Agencies (Webinar). “Presentation from the perspective of Academia” June 26, 2012.

Merial Animal Health meeting on Practical Applications to Improving your Dairy Business;  “Immunology and Neonatal Immune Development” Minneapolis, MN. June 29, 2012.

Merck Animal Health, Dairy Calf Respiratory Health Educational Seminar, “Immunology of the Dairy Calf (4 hours)” Wisconsin Dells, WI, July 25, 2012.

Merck Animal Health, Internal Parasite’s Effect on the Bovine Immune Response Meeting, “Evaluation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity”. Kansas City, MO, August 21, 2012.

Iowa Veterinary Medical Association Annual Meeting, “Challenges and opportunities for inducing immunity in calves”, Ames, IA, September 13, 2012.

Vaccines and Diagnostics for Transboundary Animal Diseases, “Welcome and Introductions” and “Conclusions and Recommendations: Challenges, Opportunities and Next Steps”, Ames, IA. September 17-19- 2012.

New York State Veterinary Conference, “Advances in Understanding Bovine Innate-Defense Mechanisms”, “Advances in Understanding Bovine Cell-Mediated Immunity”, “Vaccines for FMD and Other Foreign Animal Diseases of Cattle”, and “Development of a Secure Milk Supply Business Continuity Plan in the Event of a FMD Outbreak”, Ithaca, NY, September 28, 2012.

Elanco Science Symposium, “Innate vs. Adaptive Immunity with Emphasis on the Role of Neutrophils”, Chicago, IL, October 1-2, 2012.

Osher Lifelong Learning Institute, “Emerging diseases of food producing animals”. Ames, IA, October 3, 2012.

Secure Egg Supply Three State Planning Meeting, Rochester, MN, October 10, 2012.

National Pork Board Packer Meeting, “Building a Secure Pork Supply”, Kansas City, MO, October 16, 2012.

USAHA Committee on Transmissible Diseases of Swine, “Secure Pork Supply Update”, Greensboro, NC, October 22, 2012.

Pan American Veterinary Conference, “Transboundary Animal Disease Resources”, Cartagena, Colombia, October 25, 2012.

Food & Agriculture Protection Training Consortium, “Center for Food Security and Public Health Update”, Chicago, IL, October 30, 2012.

 

 

2012 Participation in Advisory Committee and Council Meetings

DHS, Agriculture Defense Branch, Strategic Review of S&T Agriculture Defense Portfolio. February 7-9, 2012

National Academies of Science, National Research Council, Committee on the Evaluation of the Updated Site-Specific Risk Assessment for the National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas, Washington, DC, February 21-22, 2012.

National Academies of Science, National Research Council, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) Council, Washington, DC, March 22-23, 2012.

National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, Bethesda, MD, March 29-30, 2012.

DHS University Programs Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Disease Defense (FAZD) Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, April 11-12, 2012.

DHS University Programs Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases of Animals (CEEZAD) Annual Meeting. Nebraska City, NE, May 1-2, 2012.

National Academies of Science, National Research Council, Committee on the Evaluation of the Updated Site-Specific Risk Assessment for the National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas, Briefing of DHS, Senate Appropriations Committee Staff Briefing, House Appropriations Committee Staff  Briefing, Kansas Congressional Delegation Briefing, House Homeland Security Committee Staff Briefing. Washington, DC, June 12-14, 2012.

University of Iowa, College of Public Health, Upper Midwest Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center Steering Committee Meeting, Ankeny, IA, July 16, 2012.

Mid-Atlantic Secure Milk Supply Tabletop Exercise. Durham, NC, August 9, 2012.

National Pork Board, Maintaining Business Continuity and Performing Risk Management during an Animal Disease Outbreak. Des Moines, IA, August 24, 2012

National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, Bethesda, MD, November 27, 2012.

 

2013 Invited Presentations

North American Veterinary Conference; Symposium on Food Animal Immunology & Vaccines. Five hours of CE delivery. Orlando, FL, January 19-20, 2013.

National Center of Excellence for Zoonotic and Animal Disease Defense, DHS Office of University Programs Mid-Term Review. “CEEZAD’s Education and Outreach Overlay” Arlington, VA. January 29, 2013.

One Health; One Response: Zoonotic Disease Seminar and Tabletop Exercise; Keynote Address: “Rift Valley Fever: Factors to Consider During an Outbreak” Loveland CO. Feb 5, 2013.

American Association of Swine Veterinarians Annual Meeting. “Business continuity in the face of a foreign animal disease” San Diego, CA. March 4, 2013.

All Iowa Virology Conference. “The H5N1 avian influenza virus publication controversy: Perspective from an NSABB member” Ames, IA. March 29, 2013.

Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Swine Academy. “Basic Principles of Immunology and Vaccinology” (6 hours). Ames, IA, April 12, 2013.

Multi-state Partnership for Security in Agriculture/Southern Agriculture & Animal Disaster Response Alliance Joint Regional Workshop, “Secure Food Supply Projects” New Orleans, LA. April 30, 2013.

IICAB Veterinary Biologics Training Program, “Block 1: Immunology and Principles of Vaccination” (20 hours) Ames, IA, May 14-17, 2013.

Border Protection for Foreign Animal Diseases. Group Leader for Regionalization/Compartmentalization Policies Breakout Group. Arlington, VA. May 30-31, 2013.

World Pork Expo, PORK Academy. “Secure Pork Supply” Des Moines, IA. June 5, 2013.

American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. “Immunology Training with Jim Roth”, Seattle, WA. June 12, 2013.

Site visit to evaluate Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccine production by INOVA Biotecnologia Saude Animal LTDA, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. June 17-21, 2013.

Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Swine Academy. “Basic Principles of Immunology and Vaccinology” (6 hours). Ames, IA, July 18-19, 2013.

National Pork Board Swine Health Committee Summer Meeting. “Secure Pork Supply Overview” and “FMD Vaccine Strategy Overview”. Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Orient Point, NY.  July 30-31, 2013.

Food and Agriculture Sector Coordinating Council, “Secure Pork Supply Overview”. Washington, DC. September 11, 2013.

Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Swine Academy. “Basic Principles of Immunology and Vaccinology” (6 hours). Ames, IA, September 20, 2013.

Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin. “Development of Secure Food Supply Plans in the Event of a Foreign Animal Disease Outbreak". Madison, WI. October 1, 2013.

USAHA/AAVLD Committee on Animal Emergency Management, “Secure Food Supply Plans to Protect Animal Agriculture and the Food Supply in an FAD Outbreak”. San Diego, CA. October 19, 2013.

USAHA/AAVLD Committee on Transmissible Diseases of Swine. “Secure Pork Supply Project Update” San Diego, CA. October 20, 2013.

USAHA/AAVLD Committee on Foreign and Emerging Diseases. “Controlled Movement of Swine in an FMD Outbreak” and “CFSPH Education and Outreach Efforts”. October 21, 2013.

National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). “Partnership Between UNAM and ISU for Delivery of the Enfermedades Transfronterizas de los Animales Web-Based Course”. Mexico City, Mexico. October 28, 2013.

Elanco Immunity Science Symposium. Keynote Speech: “Innate Immunity. Introduction and the Role and Function of Neutrophils” Vienna, Austria, November 5, 2013.

OIE Global Conference on Veterinary Education and the Role of the Veterinary Statutory Body.  “How Web Based Training Can Enhance Veterinary Education”, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, December 4-6, 2013.

Department Of Homeland Security Region VII; Food, Agriculture, and Veterinary Response Exercise. Logistics Group Facilitator. Kansas City, MO. December 11-12, 2013

2013 Participation in Advisiory Committees, Council Meetings, Site Visits

Food and Agriculture Protection Training Consortium, Baltimore, MD, January 23, 2013

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Council Meeting. Washington, D.C. April 4-5, 2013.

Site visit to evaluate Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccine production by INOVA Biotecnologia Saude Animal LTDA, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. June 17-21, 2013.

National Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Disease Defense Annual Meeting, A DHS Science and Technology Center of Excellence. Dallas, TX. June 27-28, 2013.

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Council Meeting. Washington, D.C. September 10-11, 2013

Aquatic Biosecurity Planning Conference, University of Munich. Munich, Germany. October 7-8, 2013.

2014 Invited Presentations

     Western Veterinary Conference, “Immunology I: Induction of the Immune Response”; “Immunology II: Role of T Cells & Evaluation of Cell-mediated Immunity”; “Immunology III: Induction of Cell-mediated Immunity to Respiratory             Disease”; “Vaccines for Foreign Diseases of Cattle” Las Vegas, NV. Feb. 17, 2014.

     National Institute for Animal Agriculture Emergency Management Council, “FMD Vaccination: Preparedness, Availability, and Limitations”. Omaha, NE, April 1, 2014.

     Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Swine Academy. “Basic Principles of Immunology and Vaccinology” (6 hours). Ames, IA, April 4, 2014.

     Iowa Joint Forces Headquarters, “Foreign Animal Diseases: Preparedness, Response, and Impact in Iowa”. Johnston, IA, April 5, 2014.

     National Pork Board Emerging Diseases Response Group. “Foreign Animal Diseases Phases and Types”. Arlington, VA. May 7, 2014.

     IICAB Veterinary Biologics Training Program, “Block 1: Immunology and Principles of Vaccination” (20 hours) Ames, IA, May 13-16, 2014.

     USDA Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health. “Presentation: Emergency Management and Preparedness, Secure Food Supply Projects”. Washington, DC. June 18, 2014.

     Bovine Immunology Preconference XIX ANEMBE Meeting. “Induction of the Immune Response”, “Role of T Cells & Evaluation of Cell-mediated Immunity”, “Induction of Cell-mediated Immunity to Respiratory Disease”. Oviedo, Spain,         June 25, 2014.

     AVMA Annual Meeting. “Emerging and Exotic Diseases of Food Animals Threaten Global Food Security”. Denver, CO. July 29, 2014.

     ISU College of Veterinary Medicine Research Day. “Foot and Mouth Disease: Preparedness, Response, and Impact”. Ames, IA. Aug 8, 2014.

     FAZD – CEEZAD Annual Meeting. “Education and Outreach Efforts”. Nashville, TN. Sept 9-10, 2014.

     “Basic Principles of Immunology and Vaccinology” Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Swine Academy.  (6 hours). Ames, IA, Sept. 19, 2014.

     USDA APHIS Administrator’s FMD Vaccine Capacity Planning Meeting. “FMD Vaccine Surge Capacity for Emergency Use in the United States”. Washington DC. Sept 30 – Oct. 1, 2014.

     California Department of Food and Agriculture. FMD Response Planning Meeting. “Secure Milk Supply Plans”. Modesto, CA. October 9, 2014.

     USAHA/AAVLD Joint Committee on Animal Emergency Management. “FMD Vaccine Surge Capacity for Use in the U.S.” Kansas City, MO. October 18, 2014.

     AAVLD Plenary Session. “Ebola Virus Infection in Dogs and Pigs”. Kansas City, MO. October 18, 2014.

     Secure Pork Supply Packer-Processer Working Group. “Background Information on Secure Pork Supply Plan”. Des Moines, IA. Oct. 29, 2014.

     Meeting with the Director General and staff of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). “CFSPH Development and Delivery of Online Veterinary Education Platform”. Paris, France, Nov 18, 2014.

     National Alliance of State Animal and Agricultural Emergency Programs. “FMD Vaccine Surge Capacity for Emergency Use in the United States”, and “Secure Food Supply Business Continuity Plans:
     Federal, State, Industry, and Academic Partnerships”. Durham, NC. Dec. 8, 2014.

2014 Participation in Advisory Committees, Council Meetings, etc.

     Serve on panel of experts testifying against legalization of raw milk at the Capital Building in Des Moines, IA, Feb 10, 2014.

     Meet at Iowa State Capital Building to discuss Senate bill regarding changing state licensure for commercial dog breeders. Des Moines, IA. Mar 5, 2014.

     Meet with OIE Regional Office of the Americas regarding offering ETA course in Latin America. Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mar 26, 2014.

     Food and Ag Protection Training Consortium. Washington, DC, April 9, 2014.

     Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Council Meeting at National Academies of Science. Washington, D.C. April 14-15, 2014

     Upper Midwest Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center Steering Committee Meeting. Urbandale, IA. July 1, 2014.

     Discuss various cooperative agreements with USDA APHIS Veterinary Services Officials. Washington, DC. Aug 21-22, 2014.

     Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Council Meeting at National Academies of Science. Washington, D.C. Sept 15-16, 2014.

     Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Experts Meeting. New York City, NY. Sept 21-22, 2014.

     National Pork Board Foot and Mouth Disease Spokesperson Training. Des Moines, IA. Sept. 24, 2014.

     Iowa legislative changes to State Licensure for Commercial Dog Breeders bill meeting. Des Moines, IA. Oct. 2, 2014.

     Planning committee meeting for “A Regulatory Flexibility Workshop for Veterinary Vaccine Potency Specifications”. Ames, IA. Oct. 3, 2014.

     California Department of Food and Agriculture FMD Emergency Vaccination Team meeting. Sacramento, CA. Oct. 8, 2014.

     Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Roundtable Discussion on Vaccination for Canine Respiratory Disease Complex. Recorded conference call. Nov. 4, 2014.

     National Pork Producers Council Emerging Diseases Response Group Meeting. Des Moines, IA. Nov. 6, 2014.

2015 Invited Presentations

     USDA Foreign Animal Disease Refresher Course. “Ebola in Domestic Animals”, National Veterinary Services Laboratory, Ames, IA. Jan. 30, 2015.

     Iowa Veterinary Medical Association Annual Meeting. “Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus: Mechanisms of Protective Immunity”, Des Moines, IA. Feb. 12, 2015.

     Multistate Partnership Meeting. “Secure Food Supply: Operational Perspective”, Denver, CO. Feb. 24, 2015.

     Swine Health Information Center Board of Directors Meeting. “Development of a Transboundary Swine Disease Information Resource”. Des Moines, IA. Apr. 7, 2015.

     Great Plains Emerging Infectious Diseases Conference. “U.S. Preparedness for Known and Emerging Infectious Disease Threats”. Iowa City, IA. Apr. 10, 2015.

     Determining Release and Throughout Dating Potency Specifications: A U.S. Regulatory Policy Workshop. “Welcome” and “Next Steps and Closing Remarks”. Ames, IA. Apr. 21-22, 2015.

     USDA FSIS Des Moines District Food Safety Summit. “Secure Food Supply Business Continuity Plans”, Ames, IA. Apr. 23, 2015. 

     Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Swine Academy. “Basic Principles of Immunology and Vaccinology” (8 hours). Ames, IA, April 24, 29, 2014.

     USDA Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health (SACAH) “Foot and Mouth Disease Preparedness and Vaccine“. Co-Presentation with Dr. Jon Zack, Bethesda, MD. April 28‐29, 2015.

     AASV Special Session at World Pork Expo. “Voluntary Controlled Movement: If not now, when?” Des Moines, IA. June 4, 2015.

     Symposium of Computational Resources for Swine Viral Diseases. “Secure Pork Supply”. Ames, IA. June 8–9, 2015

     Des Moines Science Center Café Science Series. “Avian Flu and the Path to Prevention”. Des Moines, IA. June 9, 2015.

     Western US Animal Health Association Meeting, “Secure Egg Supply Plan and Permitted Movement” Denver, CO. July 9 – 10, 2015.

     Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Swine Academy. “Basic Principles of Immunology and Vaccinology” (8 hours). Ames, IA, July 20 -23, 2015.

     Association of Veterinary Biologics Companies meeting. “Determining Release and Throughout-Dating Potency Specifications for USDA Licensed Veterinary Biologics”, Ames, IA. September 22, 2015.

     Frontier Field Trip for Kansas State University students, “Emerging and Exotic Diseases of Food Animals Threaten Global Food Security”, Ames, IA. September 25, 2015.

     National Environmental Health Association, Region 4 meeting, Panel discussion on the avian influenza outbreak in the Midwest. Waterloo, IA. October 8, 2015.

     Iowa Veterinary Rapid Response Team (IVRRT) meeting. Poultry Biosecurity Recommendations. Ames, IA. November 5, 2015.

     Academy of Veterinary Consultants. “Secure Beef Supply Plan: Federal, State, Industry, and Academic Partnership”, Kansas City, MO. Dec 4, 2015.

2015 Webinars

     North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Emergency Programs Division. “Secure Food Supply Plans Webinar”, March 12, 2015.

     North American Veterinary Conference VetFolio Webinar on “Safety and Efficacy: Vaccinating Young Animals”, March 17, 2015.

     Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity, CDC Emergency Communication System Webinar: "Emerging and Exotic Diseases of Food Animals Threatening Global Food Security" 388 participants in the webinar. May 28, 2015.

     Iowa Public Health Association Webinar. “Avian Influenza: Outbreak in Spring 2015 and Preparing for Fall 2015”. July 7, 2015.

     National Collegiate Honors Council, Institute on Food and Politics, “Emerging diseases of food animals threaten global food security”. Ames, IA. August 14, 2015.

     Webinar for Watt Publishing: “Biosecurity can keep avian flu out of your poultry house”. October 9, 2015.

     BVD Zero Live Web Congress, “Humoral and Cellular Immunity in BVD Vaccination”, Barcelona, Spain, November 18, 2015.

2015 Participation in Advisory Committees, Council Meetings, etc.

     National Workshop on Livestock Carcass Management Logistics, Kansas City, MO. Mar. 18-19, 2015.

     USDA Avian Influenza Outbreak Lessons Learned Conference, Des Moines, IA July 28-29, 2015.

     Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Council Meeting at National Academies of Science. Washington, D.C. Sept 29-30, 2015.

     Iowa HPAI review and moving forward meeting, Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship, Des Moines, IA. October 7, 2015.

     US Animal Health Association Meeting, Participated in several committee meetings related to the Secure Food Supply projects. Providence, RI. October 23 – 27, 2015.

     Board on Life Sciences, National Academy of Sciences, Committee on “One-Health Research Fellowships in Pakistan” 2015.

     Vaccines Against Antigenically Variable Viruses Symposium, Served as a session Chair. Ames, IA. Nov 6 – 8, 2015.

     State of Minnesota, Poultry/Poultry Product Permitted Movement Meeting. Chaska, MN. December 4, 2015.

     State of Iowa Foreign Animal Disease Preparedness and Response, Panel discussion led by Iowa Secretary of Agriculture. Des Moines, IA. Dec 18, 2015.

 2015 Meetings Organized

     Secure Beef Supply Plan Inaugural Meeting, Kansas City, Mo, Jan. 13, 2015

     Determining Release and Throughout Dating Potency Specifications: A U.S. Regulatory Policy Workshop. Ames, IA. Apr. 21-22, 2015.

     IICAB Veterinary Biologics Training Program, Ames, IA. May 11-15, 2015.

2016 Invited Presentations

     Iowa Emergency Disease Response Committee, “Secure Poultry Supply Plans” Des Moines, IA. January 15, 2016.

     Testimony Before the U.S. House of Representatives Agriculture Subcommittee on Livestock and Foreign Agriculture,  “Impact of an Outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in the United States and the Urgent Need for an                   Adequate Stockpile of FMD Vaccine”, Washington, DC, February, 11, 2016.

     American Association of Swine Veterinarians, “Secure Food Supply Plans” New Orleans, LA. February 28, 2016.

     Secure Pork Supply Implementation Task Force, “Overview of Secure Pork Supply (SPS) Plan” and “Lessons learned during HPAI and overview of challenges for implementation of the SPS Plan”, Des Moines, IA. March 30, 2016.

     National Institute for Animal Agriculture Annual Meeting, General Session presentation: “Evolution of Biosecurity – Recommendations for the Secure Food Supply Plans” Kansas City, MO. April 5, 2016

     Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Swine Academy. “Basic Principles of Immunology and Vaccinology” (8 hours). Ames, IA, April 25, 2016.

     Western States Livestock Health Association Meeting. “Secure Beef Supply Plan”. Sunriver Resort, Sunriver, OR, May 25-27, 2016

     World Buiatrics Conference, Make BVD History Symposium “Humoral and cellular immunity to BVDV vaccination and role in protection” Dublin, Ireland, July 5, 2016.

     Presentation to Iowa Secretary of Agriculture Bill Northey on preparedness for and consequences of an FMD outbreak in Iowa. Des Moines, IA. July 11, 2016.

     Iowa Biotech Association, Animal Health in the Heartland Symposium. “Traditional Outbreak Management Practices in the U.S." Omaha, NE. July 20, 2016.

     Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Swine Academy. “Basic Principles of Immunology and Vaccinology” (8 hours). Ames, IA, July 25, 2016.

     American Veterinary Medical Association Annual Meeting. “Integrating One Health Concepts in Addressing Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases”. San Antonio, TX. August 7, 2016.

     Symposium on the Vital 90 Days: The Beginning of a Successful Lactation. "Suppression of neutrophil function in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections in the transition cow", Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México, August 18-20, 2016.

     BIVI BVD Experts Meeting on Bovela Vaccine. “Dynamic of Immunity Study Results”. Kansas City, MO. September 6-7, 2016.

     National Association of State Animal Health Officials at the US Animal Health Association Meeting. “Secure Food Supply Plans” Greensboro, NC. October 15, 2016.

     Iowa’s Preparedness for and Response to a Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak, Meeting organized at the request of Congressman Steve King. “FMD–Importance and likely impact - Secure Food Supply Plans- Need for FMD vaccine”.         Ames, IA. October 24, 2016. 

     President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. “Vulnerability of U.S. Animal Agriculture and Food Production to Accidental or Intentional Disease Introduction”. Washington, DC. November 18, 2016.

     Workshop on Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccine: Surge Capacity and Priorities for Emergency Use. “Background on FMD vaccination” and “Summary of results of industry veterinarian survey “.  Riverdale, MD. December 15, 2016.

2016 Webinars

     CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Zoster Work Group, “Safety of Adjuvanted Vaccines in Animals”, February 1, 2016.

     Packer/Processor Webinar, “Secure Beef Supply and Secure Pork Supply”, February 9, 2016.

     Multi-State Partnership in Agriculture, “The Secure Poultry Supply Plans – Implementation during 2015 HPAI” and “Update on the Secure Beef Supply Plan”, February 16, 2016.

     Keynote Speaker for Webinar with Agriculture Officials from South Korea and USDA APHIS Veterinary Services. “Biosecurity for Control of Foot and Mouth Disease in Swine”, March 24, 2016.

     USDA APHIS Training and Exercise Program, “Update on Secure Food Supply Plans”. July 12, 2016.

     Zoetis Industry Briefing on FMD LL3B3D Vaccine, “Vulnerability of U.S. Agriculture and National Economy to Foot and Mouth Disease”. August 10, 2016.

     National Veterinary Stockpile Intra-Governmental Advisory Committee for Strategic Steering. “Update on Transboundary Animal Biologics, Inc. Activities”. Riverdale, MD, December 13, 2016.

2016 Participation in Advisory Committees, Council Meetings, etc.

     American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Public and Scientific Affairs Board Meeting, Washington, DC, February 4, 2016.

     2016 ASM Microbe Meeting, Public and Scientific Affairs Advisory Board, Committee on Agricultural and Food Microbiology. Boston, MA. June 16-20, 2016.

     Institute for Infectious Animal Diseases, Classical Swine Fever Exercise, College Station, TX. August 2-3, 2016.

     Palo Duro II Functional Exercise on FMD. Amarillo, TX. August 16-17, 2016.

     Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Advisory Council, Washington, DC. November 17, 2016.

2016 Meetings Organized

     “Alternatives to Antibiotics: Challenges and Solutions in Animal Production”, Organized with USDA ARS. Ames, IA. April 5-7, 2016.

     IICAB Veterinary Biologics Training Program, Ames, IA. May 16-20, 2016.

     “Raising Awareness among Iowa Stakeholders of the Consequences of a Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak” A series of 4 meetings organized with Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship:

            Livestock Producers, Ames, IA. June 20, 2016

            Crop Producers and Coops, Ames, IA. June 21, 2016.

            Packers and Processors, Des Moines, IA. September 19, 2016

            Food Retailers, Des Moines, IA. November 28, 2016.

            Financial Institutions, Des Moines, IA. November 29, 2016.

     Workshop on Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccine: Surge Capacity and Priorities for Emergency Use. Riverdale, MD December 15, 2016.

     Iowa’s Preparedness for and Response to a Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak, Meeting organized at the request of Congressman Steve King. Ames, IA. October 24, 2016.

2017 Invited Presentations

     Secure Beef Supply Steering Committee: “Update on FMD Vaccine Strategy”, Kansas City, MO. Jan 18-19, 2017.

     Iowa Board of Regents Meeting: “Research that leads to the National Academy of Medicine”. Ames, IA. Feb, 23, 2017

     Secure Pork Supply Implementation Taskforce, “Secure Pork Supply Plan; Federal, Industry, State and Academic Partnership”. Des Moines, IA. March 8-9, 2017

     Partnering for Growth; Biotech Innovation Showcase & Forum: “Development of a Marker Vaccine and Companion Diagnostic Test for Nipah Virus”. Ankeny, IA Mar 21-22, 2017.

     IPPA FAD Preparedness Task Force: “FAD Response and Recovery Plan”. Clive, IA. Mar 31, 2017.

     Iowa’s Preparedness for and Response to a Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak Follow Up Meeting for Congressman King: “Preparedness and Control Challenges for an Outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease in Iowa”. Ames, IA. Apr 24,       2017.

     Iowa Bankers Association, Ag Lending Committee: “Financial Institutions Role in an Outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease”. Des Moines, IA. Apr 11, 2017.

     Zoetis Professional Services Workshop, Increasing Our Impact: “Immunology and Vaccinology “. Lincoln, NE. Apr 20, 2017.

     ELANCO Dairy Technical Team: “Principles of Immunology and Vaccination: Review and Discussion” Denver, CO. June 7, 2017.

     US Meat Export Federation: “Managing the impact of a foot and mouth disease outbreak in the US on international trade”. Denver, CO. June 8, 2017.

     Manning, Iowa Rotary Club: “Preparedness and Control Challenges For an Outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease in Iowa”. Manning, Iowa. June 13, 2017

     Iowa Swine Day: “Planning for a Secure Pork Supply in the Event of a Foreign Animal Disease Outbreak”. Ames, IA June 29, 2017.

     South Dakota Governor’s Agriculture Summit: “Managing the Impact of a Foreign Animal Disease Outbreak in the US”. Aberdeen, SD. July 13, 2017.

     USDA APHIS Rendering Workshop: “Potential Need for Rendering as a Carcass Disposal Option within Secure Food Supply Plans”. Riverdale, MD. July 18, 2017.

     Iowa Farm Bureau’s 2017 Economic Summit: “Updates to the Iowa FMD and Livestock Emergency Management Plans”. Ames, IA. July 20, 2017.

     Iowa Ag State Farm Bill Task Force Meeting: “Update on Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) Emergency Management Plans”. Johnston, IA. August 3, 2017.

     Merck Swine Customer Meeting: “A Secure Pork Supply and Foreign Animal Diseases” Kansas City, MO. August 30, 2017.

     Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation: “Center for Food Security and Public Health Online Education” and “OIE Day 1 Competencies: A Demonstration Project”. Seattle, WA. September 12, 2017.

     American Association of Bovine Practitioners Pre-Conference Seminar: “The planned response to an FMD outbreak is not what it used to be”. Omaha, NE. September 15, 2017.

     Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health Swine Technical Team Meeting: “ Influenza Virus of Swine, Immunology and Vaccinology”. St. Paul, MN. September 19, 2017.

     NPPC and NCBA Meetings on Capital Hill with House and Senate Agriculture Committee majority and minority Staffers: “Funding for FMD Preparedness Issues for the Next Farm Bill”. Washington, DC. October 4, 2017.

     2017 International Symposium on Animal Environment and Welfare: “Biosecurity for a Secure Animal Protein Supply”. Rongchang, Chongqing, China. October 24, 2017.

     Global Foot and Mouth Disease Research Alliance Annual Meeting. “Preparedness and Control Challenges for an Outbreak of FMD in the United States”. Seoul, South Korea, October 26, 2017.

     Biosafety Level 4 Zoonotic Diseases Network (BSL4ZNet) Gap Analysis Workshop: “Veterinary Vaccines for Rapid Response to a Nipah Virus Outbreak” Winnipeg, Canada, November 14, 2017.

2017 Webinars

     Iowa Pork Producers Association Task Force: “Foreign Animal Disease Preparedness” January 4, 2017

     Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Council (National Academies of Science), Pakistan One Health Webinar Series: “Navigating the Peer Review Process”. June 7, 2017.

     World Aquaculture Society Meeting: “Evolving Approach to Biosecurity in the U.S. Poultry and Livestock Industries”. Cape Town, South Africa. June 30, 2017.

     USDA APHIS FMD Incident Command Group Webinar: “Potential Financial Impact of an FAD Outbreak”, September 27, 2017.

2017 Participation in Advisory Committees, Council Meetings, etc.

     American Society for Microbiology, Public and Scientific Affairs Board Meeting. Washington DC. Feb 2-3, 2017.

     Iowa Turkey Federation HPAI (Human Health) Meeting, Ames, IA Apr 13, 2017

     Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship, FMD Response Plan Validation Tabletop Exercise. Des Moine, IA June 15, 2017.

     Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, National Biodefense Strategy. Washington, D.C. June 22, 2017.

     Pan American Health Organization, Strengthening Inter-Sectoral Influenza Surveillance and Response Meeting. Washington, DC, October 2-3, 2017.

     National Academy of Medicine Annual Meeting. Washington, DC. October 14-15, 2017.

     Global Foot and Mouth Disease Research Alliance Annual Meeting. Seoul, South Korea, October 26, 2017

     2nd OIE Global Conference on Biological Threat Reduction. Ottawa, Canada. November 1-2, 2017.

     Biosafety Level 4 Zoonotic Diseases Network (BSL4ZNet) Gap Analysis Workshop. Winnipeg, Canada, November 14, 2017.

     Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Council Meeting (National Academies of Science). Washington, DC. November 30 -  December 1, 2017.

2017 Meetings Organized

     Secure Beef Supply Steering Committee. Kansas City, MO. January 18-19, 2017.

     IICAB Veterinary Biologics Training Program, Ames, IA. May 15-19, 2017.

     Secure Pork Supply Implementation Taskforce. Clive, IA. June 28, 2017.

2018 Invited Presentations

     Iowa Pork Congress. “Foreign Animal Disease Preparedness: What Should You Know?” Des Moines, IA January 25, 2018

     National Cattleman’s Beef Association. Cattle Health and Well-Being Committee. “The Value of an Expanded U.S. FMD Vaccine Bank for the Beef Cattle Industry” Phoenix, AZ. February 2, 2018

     National Cattleman’s Beef Association. Agriculture and Food Policy Committee. “Need for the Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccine Bank within the 2018 Farm Bill” Phoenix, AZ. February 2, 2018

     Iowa Veterinary Medical Association Annual Meeting. “Preparedness for Foot and Mouth Disease, Classical Swine Fever, and African Swine Fever”. Des Moines, IA. February 14, 2018.

     American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges Annual Meeting, Leadership Academy Alumni Reunion. “Serving Unmet Needs: A Leadership Journey”. Washington, DC. March 2, 2018.

     Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine. “National Veterinary Accreditation Program, Antimicrobial Resistance Modules”. Rockville, MD. April 17, 2018.

     Food Safety Inspection Service. “Potential for the CFSPH at Iowa State University to work with FSIS to develop and deliver educational materials for FSIS public health veterinarians, inspectors, or other audiences”. Washington, DC.             April 16, 2018.

     Merck Animal Health Canada. “Overview: Principles of Immunology and Vaccination” (12 hours). Toronto, Ontario, Canada. June 26-27, 2018.

     The Economics of Animal Health & Biosecurity Workshop. “The Value of an Expanded U.S. FMD Vaccine Bank for the Livestock Industry”. Washington, DC. August 8, 2018.

     UC Davis Schalm Lectureship Program, “Transboundary and Emerging Diseases of Food Animals Threaten Global Food Security” and “Response to an Outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in the U.S.”. Davis, CA. October 6-8,           2018.

     Ames Noon Rotary Club. “Overview of Zoonotic Diseases”. Ames, IA. October 29, 2018.

     Biogenesis Bago Technical Working Group. “Technological and Epidemiological Trends in Porcine and Bovine Vaccines”. Buenos Aires, Argentina. November 6, 2018.

     Argentine National Academy of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine. “Vulnerability of North America to the Introduction of Foot and Mouth Disease and Approaches to Increase Preparedness”. Buenos Aires, Argentina. November 8,         2018.

2018 Webinars

     Food Safety Inspection Service, Science and Technology Seminar Series, “Secure Food Supply Plans in a Foreign Animal Disease Outbreak: Federal, State, Industry, and Academic Partnerships” April 4, 2018.

     Immunology/Vaccinology Webinars for MSD Animal Health in the United Kingdom. “New Concepts in Immunology Leading to Improved Vaccines and Vaccine Usage” and “Response to Questions from UK Veterinarians”. Recorded for       continuous use.

     USDA APHIS Veterinary Services Training and Exercise Program. “Phases and Types of an African Swine Fever Outbreak in the United States”. November 26, 2018.

2018 Participation in Advisory Committees, Council Meetings, etc.

     Government Accountability Office. Two hour conference call on issues related to the need for an expanded FMD vaccine bank for the U.S. February 13, 2018.

     American Society for Microbiology, Public and Scientific Affairs Board, Washington, DC. March 1–3, 2018.

     USDA APHIS Veterinary Services. Classical Swine Fever Vaccine Tabletop Exercise. Participation by teleconference, April 24, 2018.  

     USDA APHIS Veterinary Services National Training and Exercise Program, ARMAR FMD Functional Exercise. Riverdale, MD, May 8-10, 2018.

     National Assembly of State Animal Health Officials, Executive Committee. Review Draft Framework for Interstate Movement Decisions during a Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak in the United States. Kansas City, MO. October 21,             2018.

     United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. Good Emergency Management Practices Technical Working Group. Rome, Italy. December 11-12, 2018.

2018 Meetings Organized

     IICAB Veterinary Biologics Training Program, Ames, IA. May 14-18, 2018.

     Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship, Avian Influenza Response Workshop. Ames, IA. May 30, 2018.