General Information:

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that are toxic to other life forms. More than 800 mycotoxins have been detected, but relatively few have been characterized and are considered to be important to animal health. There has been a tremendous increase in the ability to detect new and novel mycotoxins in the last few years.

Mycotoxin prevalence and concentration are sporadic and vary annually, even in the same location. Production is affected by local weather patterns, crop damage and productions practices. Mycotoxins may be produced pre- or post-harvest.

Mycotoxins known to occur in Iowa are aflatoxin, fumonisin, vomitoxin, T-2 and zearalenone. They are mostly found in grain, including corn, wheat, milo, rye, and oats. They may be found in silages or other feeds which contain grain.

Health effects:

Since there are many kinds of mycotoxins, which differ from each other, they produce many different kinds of diseases, called mycotoxicoses. They may cause diseases of the liver,  gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, immune system, reproductive system  or kidneys. Mycotoxicoses are not contagious.

Effects of the mycotoxins known to occur in Iowa are described in Table 1 below.

Detection of mycotoxins:

Detection of mycotoxins in feeds can aid in the prevention of mycotoxicoses.

Chemical analysis is the best way to find mycotoxins in feed. Screening methods such as ELISA kits are commonly used to rapidly detect mycotoxins. Positive results obtained by most screening methods do not prove the presence of mycotoxins, so positive results should be confirmed using chemical methods.

Screening for mycotoxins in feeds by black light (ultra-violet light) is not always reliable. Detection is based upon the fluorescence of chemicals indicative of the presence of aflatoxin, which occurs when the black light shines on them. Mycotoxins other than aflatoxin do not fluoresce. Chemicals that are not mycotoxins may also fluoresce, causing false positive results

Sampling for analysis:

Mycotoxins are not evenly distributed in feeds. Some areas may contain very high concentrations; other areas may contain no detectable amounts. Detection in feeds depends upon the quality and quantity of sample provided for analysis. The sample should reflect all of the feed available at the time the problem occurred. The longer sample is collected after onset of animal health problems, the more likely the feed from which the sample is collected will not be characteristic of the feed being eaten at the time the problem began. And, the smaller the sample collected and provided for analysis, the more likely mycotoxin contamination will be missed.

Sampling based upon visible presence of molds does not always provide a sample that contains mycotoxins. The presence or absence of visible mold growth are not reliable indicators of the presence or absence of mycotoxins. Very moldy feed may not contain any detectable amounts of know mycotoxins, while good looking feed may contain very high concentrations.

It is best to collect a sample during movement of the feed, like when augering it from the storage bin into a grain truck. Collect small amounts over the entire time the feed is being moved, so that at least 5 pounds, and as much as 10 pounds, have been collected, and mix the collected sample thoroughly.  From this large sample randomly select 1 pound in a zip lock bag to submit to the laboratory. Probe sampling may be used. Collect probe samples from as many areas of the feed as practical into a composite sample to select the 1 pound sample from.

Dry samples are preferred for transport to the laboratory. Mold may grow on wet sample, especially if the sample is placed in a plastic bag. Oven-dry specimens to less than 13% moisture for best preservation. Ship sample in a Styrofoam container on ice.

See the ISU VDL User Guide for specific submission guidelines.

Use of mycotoxin-contaminated feeds:

There are some legal requirements with mixing or blending mycotoxin contaminated feeds. Check with authorities prior to mixing or blending.

It is always safest not to use moldy or mycotoxin-contaminated feeds. Even if no detectable amounts of known mycotoxins are found in moldy feed, as yet unknown mycotoxins may be present which cannot be detected. It is best to NEVER use corn screenings for horses. Corn screenings are very likely to contain toxic concentrations of fumonisins.

If mycotoxin-contaminated feed must be used, feed it to animals that are least sensitive to its adverse health effects, or blend it with clean feed to reduce the concentration to acceptable levels. Generally, ruminants are least affected by mycotoxins. Avoid use for any breeding or gestating animals. Requirements or recommendations for mycotoxin content of feeds may be found in Table 2.

If mycotoxin-contaminated feed is to be blended, then the mycotoxin content of the “clean” and mycotoxin-contaminated feeds must be known. The following formula may be used to calculate the amount of clean feed necessary to make feed containing acceptable mycotoxin concentrations.

x = (C-L)/(H-L)

x = fraction of the mycotoxin-contaminated feed in the blended feed
C = mycotoxin concentration desired in the blended feed
H = mycotoxin concentration in the contaminated feed
L = mycotoxin concentration in the clean feed (hopefully, L = 0)

Chemicals which are supposed to bind mycotoxins, are available. The binder is mixed in with the mycotoxin-contaminated feed to bind mycotoxins, reducing or preventing absorption into the body. The theory upon which binding is based is sound, however efficacy for all mycotoxins in any feed for all animals is uncertain. The binders may also prevent the absorption of nutrients in the feed, too.

Mycotoxin Source Substances Conditions favoring production Effects


Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2) Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus Grains: corn, milo, cotton seed, peanuts

78°F - 90°F (ideal) down to 55°F

Kernel damage

High humidity or grain moisture

Acute: liver toxin, evidence of liver pathology including depression and anorexia
Chronic: depends upon species, but includes anorexia, poor growth, anemia, ascites, steatorrhea
The first mycotoxin characterized.  More of a problem in states SE of Iowa, especially in the SE part of the US.
Chronic exposure can produce liver cancer
Fumonisins (B1, B2, B3) Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium proliferatum White & yellow corn

Not well defined:

Drought during growing season, followed by cool, wet conditions during pollination and development

Horses: equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELE)
Swine: respiratory syndrome, icterus, weight loss, reduced feed intake
Ruminants: anorexia and mild weight loss on diets with up to 200 ppm fumonisins, no deaths, no other significant or persistent signs
Poultry: when consuming feed containing 200 - 400 ppm may develop inappetence and skeletal abnormalities.  More resistant than mammals

Vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol, DON) Fusarium roseum Corn, milo, wheat, rye, barley, other cereal crops

Alternating cool and warm temperatures

Wet period during flowering

Swine: associated with feed refusal, resulting in decreased weight gain
Cattle: no apparent adverse health effects

Often occurs with zearalenone
Zearalenone Fusarium roseum (Fusarium graminearum), Fusarium moniliforme Corn, wheat, barley, milo, oats

High moisture content (> 22%)

Alternating high and low temperatures during the maturing and harvesting stage (45°F - 70°F)

Functions as a weak estrogen.  It does not cause abortions.
Swine: females, hyperestrogenism, nymphomania; anestrus, pseudopregnancy; immature males, feminization, reduced libido, retarded testicular development; mature males, no effects < 200 ppm
Cattle: little effects; vaginal secretions, vaginitis, mammary enlargement

Mold infection commonly called “pink ear rot” or “scab”

Often occurs with DON (deoxynivalenol, vomitoxin)

Cattle are not very sensitive to zearalenone


Mycotoxin Commodity Animal Concentration Remarks Reference
Corn, peanut products
Finishing (feedlot) beef, cattle 300 ppb   FDA/ORG CPG 7126.33, Sec 683.100
Breeding beef cattle, breeding swine, mature poultry 100 ppb    
Finishing swine >100 lb 200 ppb    
Corn, peanut products, other animal feeds or feed ingredients, excluding cottonseed meal Immature animals 20 ppb    
Cottonseed meal Beef, cattle, swine, poultry (regardless of age) 300 ppb    
All feeds or feed ingredients Dairy animals, animal species not listed above, uses not listed above, intended use unknown 20 ppb    
Corn & corn by-products
Equine (horses) 5 ppm (<20% of diet) Most toxic to horses US FDA Final Guidance, Nov 9, 2001
Swine & catfish 20 ppm (<50% of diet)  
Breeding ruminants, breeding poultry, lactating dairy animals, laying hens 30 ppm (<50% of diet)  
Ruminants >3 months old, raised for slaughter 60 ppm (<50% of diet)  
Poultry raised for slaughter 100 ppm (<50% of diet)  
All other species or classes of livestock or animals 10 ppm (<50% of diet)    
Vomitoxin (deoxynialenol DON) Grain & grain products Swine 5 ppm (<20% of diet)   FDA advisory
Ruminating beef and feedlot cattle > 4 months, chickens 10 ppm (<50% of diet)    
Dairy cattle & other 5 ppm (<40% of diet)    
Zearalenone Diet Prepubertal gilts < 1 ppm   Osweiler (1996) Toxicology, The National Veterinary Medical Series for Independent Study, Williams & Wilkins, Media, PA: 421.
Sexually mature sows, bred sows <3 ppm  
Young boars <20 ppm  
Mature boars <200 ppm  
Virgin heifers <10 ppm